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What is alopecia, its causes and symptoms, as well as modern methods of treating baldness

Hair loss is always a psychological trauma. Many people, especially women, very seriously perceive even a slight thinning of hair, not to mention the appearance of foci of alopecia. Treatment of alopecia is a long time-consuming process, the success of which depends not only on the choice of the therapeutic method, but also on the patient's psychoemotional state.

In this article we will talk about alopecia: what is it and how to deal with the disease, and is it contagious?


–°ontent:

Forms, stages and causes of alopecia

Alopecia photo

Methods of alopecia treatment

Drug treatment

Physiotherapy

Folk remedies for alopecia

Hair transplantation

Are relapses possible?


Forms, stages and causes of alopecia

Alopecia is an increased loss of hair. There are cicatricial (irreversible) alopecia, caused by the destruction of hair follicles and non-scarring, proceeding without previous skin lesions.

Destruction of hair follicles with cicatrical alopecia is a consequence of the transferred diseases: leishmaniasis, secondary syphilis, scleroderma, pyoderma, viral dermatosis. Fungal diseases are most often affected by children aged 4 to 14 years, foci of alopecia on the scalp, formed in childhood as a result of defeat deprive, remain for life.

There are the following types of non-scarring alopecia:

1. Diffuse telogen - develops as a result of the influence of external adverse factors on the body (stress, avitaminosis, endocrine diseases, the influence of medications). More often occurs in women in active childbearing age, as well as in the first trimester of pregnancy and after childbirth. It is characterized by uniform hair thinning in the whole part of the head, as a rule, without changing the appearance of the hairstyle. In chronic course, there is a sharp decrease in the density of the hair.

2. Diffuse anagenic - occurs in patients with cancer after radiation treatment. Also when poisoning with arsenic, poisonous chemicals, as a result of the influence of radiation. People of any gender and age are subject to the presence of the listed negative factors. With anagenic alopecia, a person loses up to 90% of hair. Learn about the methods of treating diffuse alopecia.

3. Focal (alimentary) alopecia is an autoimmune disease characterized by the appearance of non-scar tissue of hair loss on the scalp. The disease has a staged course. The faces of both sexes are exposed, most often in children's and adolescents (up to 25 years).

4. Androgenetic alopecia are characterized by a staged course. This type of alopecia in men and women differs in the number of stages. The male hair loss occurs in 7 stages (the Norwood-Hamilton classification): it begins with thinning in the frontal cavities, gradually pushing back the hair growth line, then a bald head is formed on the vertex, eventually the foci of alopecia on the frontal depressions and the crown merge, forming a large bald head.

Details about the causes of each species.

In women, hair thinning begins in the area of the central parting, which eventually expands, forming a focus of alopecia on the vertex.

95% of the "balding" people are diagnosed with telogenous alopecia, and only 5% have other types of baldness. Diagnosis of alopecia is carried out by a doctor trichologist, in his absence in a medical institution, consultation and treatment is conducted by a dermatologist.

The diagnosis is made on the basis of examination, Trichogramma and the results of laboratory tests (what tests should be given for alopecia?).

Alopecia photos

How does alopecia look like, the photo below:



In the photo the beginning of alopecia:



Methods of alopecia treatment

Can you restore your hair after baldness? With the exception of cicatricial alopecia, when it is possible to hide the bald patch only by hair transplantation, hairpieces and wigs, other types of baldness are amenable to treatment.

Treatment of alopecia includes the following methods:

Methods of treatment of alopecia1. Medicamentous therapy - glucocorticosteroids, antiandrogens, oral contraceptives.

2. External medicamental treatment - glucocorticosteroids, irritants, dermatotropic drugs that stimulate hair growth.

3. Photochemotherapy.

4. Traditional medicine.

5. Physiotherapy methods - darsonvalization, galvanization, electrotrichogenesis, cryotherapy, massage (manual, vacuum).

6. Means that mask hair loss - balms, mousses, foams, powders, increasing the volume of hair, false hair, dyes, wigs, special haircuts with baldness.

7. Surgical methods - plastic surgery, subcutaneous expanders, transplantation of artificial hair, autotransplantation of hair.

8. Diffuse hair loss does not need special treatment. After eliminating the cause that caused hair thinning, their loss is eliminated.

9. To improve the appearance of ringlets, you can use various hair cosmetics - serums, masks, balms, as well as folk and physiotherapy methods.

To stimulate the growth of new hair in the centers of alopecia with alopecia areata, drug therapy is used. With androgenetic baldness in the early stages, the process of hair loss can be stopped with medication and physiotherapy methods, with large lesions requiring surgical treatment.

Medication


When androgenic alopecia patients are prescribed drugs with antiandrogenic effect:

Men - Finasteride, Proscar;

Women - Silest, Spironolactone.


To restore the growth of hair use shampoos, sprays, lotions based on minoxidil - "Generolon", "Rogaine", "Cosilon".

Minoxidil extends the phase of hair growth, restores atrophied hair follicles, thereby stimulating the growth of new hairs. Improvement in patients is noted for 4 months of application of minoxidil, complete recovery of the hair is completed by the 12th month of use of the remedy. With focal alopecia inside, it is recommended to take 1 tablet of Prednisolone (Prednisone) for at least a month.

The drug has an immunosuppressive effect and suppresses the autoimmune process in the hair follicles.

Along with drug therapy, patients are admitted to take vitamin B6, folic acid and zinc, and also to use shampoos with beer yeast.

Physiotherapy

Physiotherapy methods are divided into electrical, manual and temperature.

Electrical methods activate metabolic processes in the scalp, increase blood circulation, improve the nutrition of bulbs, and relieve spasms. These include electrotrichogenesis, galvanic and darsonvalization. The procedures are carried out by means of special equipment in the cosmetology rooms.

Temperature methods, exposure to heat or cold, are used in the treatment of focal alopecia. The essence of physiotherapy is to obtain an easy inflammatory effect to suppress the autoimmune process in bulbs.

MassageMassage is used to activate the neuroreceptor apparatus, provide lymph drainage and improve blood supply.

Manual massage is carried out using therapeutic creams, lotions, essential oils.

Vacuum massage is done using small cups, which are placed on the scalp, creating a pulsating vacuum. Under such conditions, the microvessels begin to narrow and expand, thereby improving the blood flow and nutrition of the bulbs.

Folk remedies for alopecia

Recipes of traditional medicine can be used in the treatment of alopecia, as ancillary. With increased hair loss, as well as in the complex treatment of androgenetic alopecia, the following can be used:

1. After two tablespoons of sage grass and hop seeds, pour 0.5 liters of boiling water, keep on low heat for 10 minutes, cool, strain. Apply compresses to the affected areas of the head.

2. Mix 1 teaspoon of herbs: burdock root, string, chamomile flowers, St. John's wort, corn stigmas. Brew 1 tablespoon with a glass of boiling water and make compresses.

3. Add 1 capsule of "Aevit" (Vitamin A + E) to the burdock oil (50 ml), add 1 egg yolk - mix everything and apply the mixture with massaging movements on the scalp, close the cap and leave for 30 minutes.

Anti-androgenic action is possessed by -linoleic acid, which is contained in oils of black currant, avocado, jojoba and roots of nettle. Natural phytoestrogens can enhance hair growth, prevent the process of their loss.

Estrogen-like action is revealed in seeds of grapes, horsetail, clover, hops, sage, in oils of wheat germ, olive, palm, sesame. Phytoestrogens can be applied externally, make head massages using oils, or take the herb decoctions inside.

Hair transplantation

Hair transplantationHair transplantation is used in cases where lesions of baldness occupy a large area, and conservative treatment does not produce the proper effect, and with scar irreversible alopecia.

Hair transplantation is carried out in two ways:

1. Artificial hair transplantation. With the help of special equipment on the skin, micro cuts are made, through which artificial hairs are sewed. Over time, they take root and fuse with the skin.

2. Autotransplantation of follicles. Available healthy follicles are transplanted into bare areas.

The method of autotransplantation is safer. Transplantation of artificial hair often gives complications in the form of purulent abscesses, it is contraindicated for persons with fungal diseases of the skin, endocrine disorders, diseases of the emotional sphere.

Are relapses possible?

With any form of non-scarring alopecia, relapses are possible. Therapy of androgenetic alopecia allows you to suspend the pathological process, however, when you cancel treatment in most people, hair loss resumes.

With regard to focal alopecia, the disease has an unpredictable nature: in some people, hair growth resumes without subsequent relapse, others after a successful treatment again comes a second episode of the disease. In most cases, hair loss is temporary and provoked by external negative factors.

Hair, as an indicator react to stress - after emotional trauma, with strict diets, avitaminosis, unhealthy way of life, they begin to fall out, signaling to a person about violations in the work of the body.

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