What causes of baldness in men

Contrary to popular belief, copious hair loss in a man - this is not necessarily a testament to a high level of testosterone.

Content of the article:

- Types of Alopecia;

- Prevention;

- Treatment of hair loss;

- Diffuse alopecia;

- Androgenetic alopecia in men;

Alopecia can be a sign of chronic stress, endocrine system diseases, immunological pathology.

Therefore in each specific case it is necessary to understand, to be surveyed and to prescribe treatment proceeding from the diagnosis.

From the article you will receive the necessary general information about the causes of alopecia in men and what kind of doctor you need for the appointment of examination and treatment.

Types of baldness in men

The most frequent species that occurs in men is hereditary alopecia. Androgenetic alopecia occurs in 95% of all men. Some guys celebrate its first signs already in 20 years. At 35 years, a significant thinning of hair on the vertex becomes noticeable in 50-60% of men.

Since there is a rapid loss of hair at a young age, very often baldness is also a psychological problem associated with self-confidence, self-esteem, self-identification.

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Distinguishing signs of androgenic alopecia are as follows:

- The first signs of impending alopecia become visible along the line of hair growth on the forehead, and especially in the area of the frontotemporal lobes, which can significantly recede from the hair growth line.

- First, the hair changes, becomes thin, short and loses the pigment, because there are hair, but they can no longer cover the scalp.

- Gradually begins the loss of hair on the vertex with the formation of a round or oval zone of rarefaction of hair, and then bald spots.

- Hair on the nape of the process of alopecia does not affect.

Types of Alopecia


Causes of hair loss in men in case of hereditary alopecia:

- testosterone;

- genetically determined hypersensitivity of the hair follicles of the frontal and parietal areas of the head to a high level of testosterone.

None of these reasons work separately.

Testosterone under the action of a special enzyme turns into its active form dihydrotestosterone. Dihydrotestosterone in the scalp leads to a pronounced persistent narrowing of the vessels that feed the hair follicles.

Such a prolonged vasospasm leads to the fact that the hair follicles become unable to produce normal hair, and the hair rods become thinner, lose the pigment, and the period of their active growth is sharply shortened.

Approximately 10-12 years after the onset of alopecia, they overgrow with connective tissue and restore hair growth from them is no longer possible.

Sensitive to the action of hormones are only the follicles of the frontal and parietal areas of the scalp. Hair follicles on the skin of the occipital region to dihydrotestosterone are not sensitive, therefore they are not damaged.

The second most common type of alopecia is diffuse. With diffuse alopecia, hair follicles prematurely pass from the phase of hair growth to the resting phase under the influence of unfavorable for the human body causes.

Telogen diffuse alopecia is manifested after some time after exposure to a factor harmful to the body. Usually it's 4-6 weeks.

Hair loss with telogenic alopecia can last from three months to a year, even if the causative factor has already ceased to function. Hair after the episode of hair loss is restored completely, even without treatment.

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Causes of telogen diffuse alopecia:

- high, often even overstated requirements for self, constant self-criticism, the performance of a large amount of work in an unrealistically short time, lack of sleep, stress from overexertion, hyperactivity, conflicts at work and at home;

- Diseases, surgical operations, especially diseases of the thyroid gland;

- intense physical activity, coinciding with a low-calorie diet;

- violation of the balance of vitamins and microelements in the body (zinc, selenium, iron, vitamin A, etc.);

- taking certain drugs, such as anabolic steroids, antidepressants, etc.


Anagen diffuse alopecia is observed when the effect of the causative factor on the body is too strong. Then the hair follicles simply do not have time to go into the resting phase and the hair begins to fall already in the growth phase.

Hair loss begins immediately after the impact of the causative factor and can reach a significant degree of severity, up to complete baldness. Usually, if the hair follicles are not damaged, the hair is gradually restored.

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Causes of anagenic diffuse alopecia:

- reception of chemotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of oncological diseases;

- exposure to radiation; poisoning with toxins.

After anagenic diffuse alopecia, the structure or color of newly grown hair can change: in the place of straight hair, curly hair can grow and vice versa.

Focal and scarring alopecia in men are found, but extremely rare.

Focal (alimentary) alopecia is believed to be associated with impaired functioning of the body's immune system. In this case, the cells of the immune system attack the hair follicles, which leads to a rapid loss of hair on the rounded areas of the skin. The skin itself is not damaged. Most common nodular alopecia are found on the skin of the scalp, but in severe cases, foci can form on the beard, eyelashes, and eyebrows.

alopecia areata in men

In some cases, focal hair loss on the legs and trunk is encountered. Individual foci are usually formed within a day. Then, individual elements begin concentric growth and merge with each other.

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Cicatricial alopecia is the absence of hair growth in places of former wounds, bruises, burns, where the skin with the hair follicles was replaced by a connective tissue scar.

Cicatricial alopecia

In men, traumatic alopecia also occurs, in which hair falls out in places where it undergoes considerable tension. The most common traumatic alopecia is found in men with the initial stages of androgenetic baldness, which use postyzhernye devices to hide outlined bald patches (wigs with special fastenings, individual strands that are fixed to the hair, lining on special clips that attach to the hair).

traumatic alopecia

Any of the products that is attached to their own hair, has a weight and creates a load on the damaged hair follicles and thus causes increased hair loss.

To distinguish the traumatic hair loss from other types of balding is possible by the fact that it is partial, i.e. occurs only in those places where there is a load on their own strands. If the causative factor is eliminated, the hair in the places of traumatic bald patches is gradually restored.

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Prevention of male pattern baldness

Considering the fact that most men are affected by baldness, they often begin at a young age, and the wearing of wigs and linings by men is not approved by society, then prevention becomes much more preferable and effective than the subsequent struggle.

prevention of alopecia

Ineffective methods of prevention and treatment:

- Wearing short haircuts in order not to create a load on the hair follicle.

In fact, the length of the hair does not matter for the functioning of the hair follicle. Important blood flow in the papilla and the presence / absence of damaging factors (we listed them above in the section of causes and types of baldness).

Wearing short haircuts

A short haircut is good for those who prefer this style for ease of care, as well as for those who started to notice the first signs (on short hair, a decrease in the density of the hair is not so noticeable).

- Shaving hair in childhood and adolescence in order to hair grow better.

In fact, shaving the hair on the hair on the subsequent thickness of hair and the density of the hair is not affected, otherwise all those who served in the army would have hair better than those who did not serve in the army.

- Folk remedies, medications and procedures on the recommendation of acquaintances and advertising from the Internet and the media.

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In fact, the use of methods of treating alopecia without understanding the cause of your own baldness and the mechanisms of action of the drugs and procedures used at best will not have an effect, at worst it will make you lose valuable time that you could spend on proper and effective treatment.

- Refusal of the ratio of headgear, because of which "the skin does not breathe."

All the necessary oxygen scalp and hair follicles are not obtained from the air, and from the blood. Therefore wearing hats and other headgear does not affect their growth in any way.


Effective methods of prevention:

- Diet with a rich content of protein, zinc, iron, vitamins.

- Physical activity to increase the supply of blood oxygen, increase blood flow in the body tissues.

- Timely treatment of diseases, reasonable intake of medications.

- The use of drugs that improve the functioning of hair follicles and their resistance to damaging factors.


Such drugs can be divided into four groups:

- vitamins and microelements necessary for hair growth: vitamins of group B, vitamin A, iron, zinc, etc .;

- substances with a fortifying and tonic effect: panthenol, plant extracts, tar, propolis, mustard, red hot pepper, camphor, menthol, nicotinic acid or nicotinamide, etc .;

- substances that have a direct effect on the intensity of metabolic processes in the hair follicle: aminexil, tricomin, TRX2, etc .;

- Antifungal drugs for topical use: Nizoral-shampoo.

It should be understood that none of the drug groups is able to prevent the development of scar or alopecia areata, and the drugs of the first two groups are powerless in the case of androgenetic alopecia.

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Treatment of hair loss

In order for the treatment to bring results quickly and with minimal effort and time, it is first necessary to identify the causes of baldness in men, and then choose the optimal drugs and pills that will help restore normal hair growth and the density of the head of hear.

Diffuse alopecia

In principle, stop hair loss with diffuse alopecia will not work, because when the hair follicle passes into a phase of rest, the hair dies and eventually falls out anyway.

Another thing is that there is a large amount of funds that allow you to reduce the number of follicles that go to rest phase prematurely, and accelerate the growth of new hair.

Folk remedies

These remedies include masks for the scalp with substances that enhance blood flow and accelerate metabolism. This is a mustard powder, onion juice, red hot pepper, any alcohol-containing preparations.

folk remedies against baldness

It is also good to add nuts, dried fruits, seafood, which contain valuable oils, vitamins and minerals necessary for healthy hair. Helps to normalize the state of health and relieve the nervous tension of yoga, if you practice regularly.

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Use of special shampoos and conditioners

At the same time several active substances are in the composition of cosmetic means against hair loss: vitamins, minerals, proteins, plant extracts, beekeeping products, panthenol. Also in the composition of such cosmetics may include components that enhance blood circulation in the scalp: alcohol, menthol, camphor, nicotinamide, etc.

Physiotherapy

Any procedures that improve the metabolic processes in the scalp and follicle nutrition are good. This can be a laser comb, darsonvalization of the scalp, scalp skin massage, cryotherapy. To improve hair growth, you can use mesotherapy if you choose the right combination of drugs for injection or use medicines specially designed for prevention and treatment.

Ozone therapy, both general and local, is also successfully used to intensify hair growth in the case of diffuse alopecia.

Androgenetic alopecia in men


What not to do for the treatment of androgenic alopecia.

- Look at the parents and think whether the predisposition to baldness is inherited. In fact, in most cases, the genetic feature is transmitted from the father or mother, but in almost 7% of cases androgenetic alopecia can develop in humans for the first time, in the absence of parental symptoms.

- To hope that the causes of early baldness are stress and smoking, lack of sleep and unbalanced nutrition. In the case of diffuse alopecia it is. But if the hair falls out over a period of more than 12 months, if the hair on the vertex becomes thin and lose its color, if your hair is much thicker in the photo of one or two years ago, then you should suspect androgenetic alopecia and call a trichologist.

- To hope for a wonderful remedy for balding for men, who for one application will solve all the problems and spend precious time on his quest. There is no miraculous means. Folk methods can not solve the problem at a genetic level. It is impossible to stop androgenetic alopecia. But there are proven medications that help keep the density of hair at an acceptable level for a long time. It is much better to immediately start treatment with these drugs and get a noticeable effect, which is all the more pronounced, the earlier you start treatment, than to come to these drugs much later, after you are disappointed in all the miraculous means.

- Set yourself unrealistic goals of treatment. Do not try to restore the density of hair that you had in 16 years, if your bald head is already over 10 years old. This will only create the ground for anxiety and frustration. It is much more fruitful to look first for how to stop baldness. And then already plan the hair growth. Effective is considered such treatment, which allows you to reduce the severity of alopecia in stages 1-2 on the Norwood scale. The use of the Norwood scale is useful for an objective assessment of the severity of hair loss and the results of treatment.

androgenic alopecia

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Preparations and their combination for treatment of androgenic alopecia are prescribed by the doctor in each specific case. Here we give general recommendations that will make the treatment more effective:

- the earlier you start the treatment, the more pronounced the effect will get;

- treatment will be effective only if it is carried out continuously and for a long time, because after the cessation of treatment, the hair follicles are very quickly damaged and cease to function;

- it is desirable to use just two drugs for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, which have different mechanisms of action: finasteride and minoxidil, minoxidil and spironolactone, tricomin and El Cannel, etc .;

- if the topical application is no longer valid, you can either replace them with drugs with more effective penetration into the skin or use a mesoroller (scalpoller) before applying the drugs.

Treatment of nest alopecia is not developed. In practice, several schemes are used, which is prescribed by a dermatologist. Scar alopecia is not treated, since there are no hair follicles in the scars of connective tissue.

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