What Causes Male Pattern Baldness?

Male pattern baldness affects over half of men to some extent over the age of 50 and most men at some stage in their lives. Most affected men do not wish to have any treatment. If required, there are some treatments which can prevent further hair loss and may help hair regrow.

To determine the cause of hearing loss arrest, one must know that can be weeks between the triggering event and hair loss. Do not ever go to the hair immediately lost. Often they ask first of all growth and change in the idle state. Then fall After the rest phase at once very many hair simultaneously.With increasing age the hair in most people is a little lighter. In rare cases, baldness is already congenital or occurs in the first years of life, for example as a result of metabolic defects on.

Androgenetic alopecia (hair loss caused by the installation): hair roots hypersensitive to male sex hormone

The cause of the most common form of hair loss is the same for men and women and does not constitute a hormonal disorder, although a hormone, namely the male sex hormone dihydrotestosterone (DHT), plays a crucial role. The biologically highly active DHT in the body of men and women by means of an enzyme (5-alpha reductase) formed of the male sex hormone testosterone (male sex hormones called androgens).
However, it is a misconception that all men have bald excessive male hormones in the blood or women with a few exceptions produced too much testosterone.
The event takes place rather locally at the hair root in the central header from. In people with androgenetic alopecia, the hair roots react extremely hypersensitive to DHT. Furthermore, these hair roots contain a larger quantity of the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase, thus allowing more DHT produced.

The predisposition are embodied in heredity, the genes. However, it is not automatically "inherited". There are in this case different genes in the game ("genetically complex disease"). From the hair of the next of kin is therefore not absolutely safe conclusion can be drawn as to whether and when the own head is clear.The hypersensitivity to DHT causes shortening the growth phase of hair. "Live" The hair no longer so long, they fall out quickly and become thinner from time to time, set up only a tiny vellus hair roots. In some cases, this goes together with the hair roots based (medically called this regression miniaturization).Some studies (in men) a certain relationship between androgenetic alopecia and benign prostatic hyperplasia and other diseases suspect.

Circular hair loss (alopecia areata): immune attack on the hair root

The exact causes of this disease are unknown. Physicians believe that it is an incorrect response of the body's immune system, an autoimmune disease, is. Instead of fighting dangerous viruses and bacteria, the immune cells directed suddenly against the body's own hair and trigger inflammation from. As a result, the hair will not grow properly and fall out.In some families, the alopecia areata occurs frequently, making a hereditary predisposition probably. This is currently being intensively investigated. The circular hair loss occurs above average often together with other autoimmune diseases, for example, with the white spot disease (vitiligo) or a thyroid disorder.

Diffuse hair loss: Many different causes

Man must here between two "types" differ from diffuse hair loss. When a form of hair loss normally occurs two to three months after the damaging event or after onset of the disease a - through the increased occurrence of hair loss in the phase (telogen). This affects most mentioned causes.
Falling hair directly in the growth phase (anagen), so the hair loss can also occur after a few days, as is the case with some chemotherapies.
Hyperthyroidism / under function
A thyroid disorder, as an important metabolic organ, with some sufferers may have a diffuse hair loss result. In an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism), it may also drive alongside poverty, increased sensitivity to cold and cool, dry skin come to dull, brittle hair. An overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism) can also show with diffuse hair loss and with increased irritability, heat intolerance, warm moist skin and soft, thin hair.

Iron deficiency

Iron deficiency, above all, a lack of storage iron (ferritin) is frequently detected in patients with diffuse hair loss. Whether this is really the cause of increased hair loss, is still not fully clarified. An iron deficiency can by insufficient iron intake from diet, insufficient iron absorption caused by the intestines or an increased blood loss. Causes are then, for example, heavy periods or gastrointestinal ulcers.

Nutritional deficiency, diseases

For a balanced diet it is in our latitudes in the rarest of cases to a lack of nutrients and thereby a diffuse hair loss. However, by (even brief ones) crash diets, eating disorders (anorexia, bulimia), as well as insufficient absorption of nutrients through the intestines in chronic intestinal diseases or surgery, a nutrient deficiency occur. In the course of serious chronic diseases, infectious diseases such as influenza or scarlet fever, as well as after surgery with general anesthesia, the hair can also diffuse clear.

Drugs, poisoning

Diffuse hair loss can manifest itself as a side effect of medications, such as cholesterol-lowering agents, agents for blood thinning, retinoids for acne or beta-blockers for high blood pressure. Very rare causes include poisoning, for example, be by thallium. These are rarely exclusively with hair loss accompanied, but with other physical symptoms.

Diffuse Alopecia Areata

A rare subtype of circular hair loss represents the diffuse alopecia areata. It can be difficult to distinguish from other causes of diffuse hair loss. For information about alopecia areata see above.

Pregnancy, hormone intake

During pregnancy, the female hormone balance changed. One result is that many expectant mothers can appreciate particularly dense and healthy looking hair, because the growth phase of the hair is extended. then However, the hormonal changes after childbirth often results in the hair over the entire head distributes be stronger than usual. These fluctuations are the sufferers often frightening, usually settle down after a short time on the usual normal level one. Women who begin the "birth control pill", to switch to another product or stop taking, sometimes also observe effects on their hair.

Chemotherapy, radiotherapy

Chemotherapy, as applied in many cancers (but need not) may be connected with a diffuse hair loss. It can be affected not only the head hair, but also eyelashes, eyebrows and body hair. The hair usually falls a few days to weeks of starting treatment, and / or break amplified from over the scalp. They usually grow after treatment by again.

Must be a patient radiotherapy, as occurs in cancers for use, undergo and lies scalp in the irradiation field, so there may be an increased diffuse hair loss in this case also. In most cases, start the hair some time after this treatment to regrow. At very high doses of radiation hair roots are possibly permanently damaged, so that the hair grows sparser.

Mechanical causes

Some hairstyles or headgear to stretch the hair. Who always wearing a ponytail, sometimes notes that the hair is thinning at the temples and in the crown area. Debt is then possibly the constant train. Also continued pressure is the hair growth is not conducive. To be able to go longer bedridden hair at the back lost.

Infections, skin diseases
Cause of a diffuse or localized hair loss may be diseases also different (skin): fungal infections, infection with bacteria or viruses as Herpes Zoster, tumors on the skin, psoriasis or eczema of the scalp.
Scarring alopecia
There are further some inflammatory diseases or injuries of the scalp, which often lead to the destruction of the hair roots and lead to scarring: eg deep Pilzinfenktion scalp, acid or Laugeverätzung, burns, chronic discoid lupus erythematosus, lichen-Skin circumscribed, scleroderma, folliculitis decalvans. This may remain permanently hairless spots. After inflammatory skin and Haarbalgerkrankungen the next state is also referred to as so-called Pseudopelade Brocq.
Stress and psychological causes
Many studies suggest that stress can lead to hair loss. In studies in mice, this could already be proved.

Rarely behind the alleged baldness also a mental illness stuck. Some people feel the compulsion to pull out when tension hair. Conduct disorder called trichotillomania. Experts from an impulse control disorder. Often it begins in youth, women here are more frequently affected than men. In severe cases, the scalp then has numerous bald spots, although the hair actually are perfectly healthy. Many sufferers invent alleged causes of the supposed loss of hair or try to hide the thin places under headgear or hairpieces. Various psychological factors such as anxiety or mental injury (trauma) is based. For treatment is psychotherapy, usually in the form of cognitive behavioral therapy in question.

Maintenance error

Some people seem to her hair too much hair. This may cause damage to the hair itself, for example by intensive hot blow-drying, curling irons, frequent bleaching or perming. This can cause the hair looks brittle or strengthened breaks. Hair loss itself is not produced by these strains of hair usually.